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2009-06-03 – Anoiapithecus brevirostris “Lluc”: new Hominid (nuovo ominide scoperto in Spagna)

In Italiano:

Lluc è il nome dell’ “Anoiapithecus” possibile nuovo antenato dell  – Soverato News – ‎2-giu-2009‎ – Non è detto però che l’ Anoiapithecus (nome scientifico attribuito sulla base del luogo di ritrovamento), benchè abbia un aspetto moderno sia un diretto

Firenze: un nuovo antenato per la famiglia Hominidae inToscana
 ECCO LLUC, NUOVO ANTENATO DELL’UOMO ANSA
Scoperto nuovo antenato dell’uomo ANSA
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New Hominid 12 Million Years Old Found In Spain, With ‘Modern’ Facial Features

ScienceDaily (June 2, 2009) — Researchers have discovered a fossilized face and jaw from a previously unknown hominoid primate genus in Spain dating to the Middle Miocene era, roughly 12 million years ago. Nicknamed “Lluc,” the male bears a strikingly “modern” facial appearance with a flat face, rather than a protruding one. The finding sheds important new light on the evolutionary development of hominids, including orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and humans.

In a study appearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Salvador Moyà-Solà, director of the Institut Català de Paleontologia (ICP) at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and colleagues present evidence for the new genus and species, dubbed Anoiapithecus brevirostris. The scientific name is derived from the region where the fossil was found (l’Anoia) and also from its “modern” facial morphology, characterized by a very short face.

 

Lluc reconstruction. (Credit: Image courtesy of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Lluc reconstruction. (Credit: Image courtesy of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)

 The research team at the ICP also includes collaborator David M. Alba, predoctoral researcher Sergio Almécija, postdoctoral researcher Isaac Casanovas, researcher Meike Köhler, postdoctoral researcher Soledad De Esteban, collaborator Josep M. Robles, curator Jordi Galindo, and predoctoral researcher Josep Fortuny.

Their findings are based on a partial cranium that preserves most of the face and the associated mandible. The cranium was unearthed in 2004 in the fossil-rich area of Abocador de Can Mata (els Hostalets de Pierola, l’Anoia, Barcelona), where remains of other fossilized hominid species have been found. Preparing the fossil for study was a complicated process, due to the fragility of the remains. But once the material was available for analysis, the results were surprising: The specimen (IPS43000) combined a set of features that, until now, had never been found in the fossil record.

Anoiapithecus displays a very modern facial morphology, with a muzzle prognathism (i.e., protrusion of the jaw) so reduced that, within the family Hominidae, scientists can only find comparable values within the genus Homo, whereas the remaining great apes are notoriously more prognathic (i.e., having jaws that project forward markedly). The extraordinary resemblance does not indicate that Anoiapithecus has any relationship with Homo, the researchers note. However, the similarity might be a case of evolutionary convergence, where two species evolving separately share common features.

Lluc’s discovery may also hold an important clue to the geographical origin of the hominid family. Some scientists have suspected that a group of primitive hominoids known as kenyapithecines (recorded from the Middle Miocene of Africa and Eurasia) might have been the ancestral group that all hominids came from. The detailed morphological study of the cranial remains of Lluc showed that, together with the modern anatomical features of hominids (e.g., nasal aperture wide at the base, high zygomatic rood, deep palate), it displays a set of primitive features, such as thick dental enamel, teeth with globulous cusps, very robust mandible and very procumbent premaxilla. These features characterize a group of primitive hominoids from the African Middle Miocene, known as afropithecids.

Interestingly, in addition to having a mixture of hominid and primitive afropithecid features, Lluc displays other characteristics, such as a very anterior position of the zygomatic, a very strong mandibular torus and, especially, a very reduced maxillary sinus. These are features shared with kenyapithecines believed to have dispersed outside the African continent and colonized the Mediterranean region, by about 15 million years ago.

In other words, the researchers speculate, hominids might have originally radiated in Eurasia from kenyapithecine ancestors of African origin. Later on, the ancestors of African great apes and humans would have dispersed again into Africa — the so-called “into Africa” theory, which remains controversial. However, the authors do not completely rule out the possibility that pongines (orangutans and related forms) and hominines (African apes and humans) separately evolved in Eurasia and Africa, respectively, from different kenyapithecine ancestors.

The project at els Hostalets de Pierola is continuing and, the researchers anticipate, more fossil remains will be found in the future that will provide key information to test their hypotheses.


Journal reference:

  1. Salvador Moyà-Solà, David M. Alba, Sergio Almécija, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Meike Köhler, Soledad De Esteban-Trivigno, Josep M. Robles, Jordi Galindo, and Josep Fortuny. A unique Middle Miocene European hominoid and the origins of the great ape and human clade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0811730106

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Other Links:

  • In English

Our earliest hominid ancestors may have been European

Thaindian.com – ‎1-giu-2009‎
According to a report in New Scientist, the fossil, named Anoiapithecus brevirostris by Salvador Moya-Sola of the Catalan Institute of Palaeontology in

Researchers from the Institut Catala de Paleontologia describe a

EurekAlert (press release) – ‎2-giu-2009‎ – The new hominid has been given the scientific name of Anoiapithecus brevirostris, in reference to the region where the town of els Hostalets is situated

Найденные останки Anoiapithecus brevirostris. Фото National

Lenta.ru – ‎9 ore fa‎
Они отмечают, что важность находки Anoiapithecus brevirostris безусловна, но вот выводы ученых могут быть ошибочны. В частности, специалисты говорят,
  • In GERMAN

Aus Europa nach Afrika und wieder zurück

wissenschaft.de – ‎19 ore fa‎ – Die Anoiapithecus brevirostris genannte Art hat sich vor rund zwölf Millionen Jahren in Europa entwickelt und wanderte von dort aus nach Afrika ein,

Unser spanisches Erbe sueddeutsche.de

 Knochenfund Stammt der Mensch aus Spanien? Bayerischer Rundfunk. Hominiden-Fossil Waren unsere frühesten Vorfahren Europäer? ZEIT ONLINE

All news in German

  • In SPANISH – ESPANOL

Investigadores catalães definem espécie Anoiapithecus brevirostris

Ciência Hoje – ‎44 minuti fa‎
Os cientistas baptizaram esta nova espécie de Anoiapithecus brevirostris (pois o fóssil foi encontrado em Anoia) eo ser de Lluc (aquele que ilumina).

Fóssil de Lluc ‘ilumina’ história dos hominídeos Diário de Notícias – Lisboa

giugno 3, 2009 - Posted by | - Mammiferi, - Ominidi, - Primati, An. Vertebrates, Articolo sc. di riferimento, Cenozoic, Europa, Lang. - German, Lang. - Italiano, P - Paleoantropologia, P - Ritrovamenti fossili, Paleontology / Paleontologia, X - PNAS

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